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Resource Management: Industrial Solid Waste and Phosphogypsum Management

Industrial Solid Waste and Phosphogypsum Disposal

Ardaman specializes in the geotechnical, civil and environmental engineering aspects of siting, design, construction monitoring, management and closure of industrial solid waste disposal facilities in general and phosphogypsum disposal stacks and coal combustion residual landfills in particular.

Solid Waste Management Experience

Phosphogypsum Stacks

Our experience list includes over 75 disposal sites. These projects involve gypsum stacks covering areas ranging from 40 ha(hectare) to more than 400 ha, and fertilizer plants with P2O5 production rates ranging from about 200,000 short tons/year to 1,500,000 short tons/year.

Ardaman provides varied services in this area including the following:

  • Design of gypsum storage/disposal areas (stacks) as well as vertical and horizontal expansions of existing areas, which includes design of liners, drains, slurry walls, surface drainage etc.
  • Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of phosphogypsum
  • QA/QC testing and inspection of construction of gypsum stacks and related facilities
  • Closure of existing gypsum stacks, including construction QA/QC testing and inspection
  • Gypsum disposal operation and water management plans
  • Design of watershed reduction projects
  • Annual inspection of gypsum stacks and training of owner’s staff members in rules for stack operations
  • Water use permitting support
  • NPDES and all other types of permitting
  • Contamination assessments and plume containment

Ardaman’s engineers in general and principals in particular, have extensive knowledge of the rules that govern the phosphate industry, since they assisted both the industry and the regulators in formulating these rules. Dr. John Garlanger, P.E. worked with the original version of Rule 62-672, Florida Administrative Code, relating to dams associated with phosphate mining. Dr. Nadim Fuleihan, P.E. represented the State of Florida and the Florida Phosphate Council during the substantial revisions of Rule 62-672 to make it applicable to phosphogypsum stack systems. Drs. Fuleihan and Garlanger represented the Phosphate Council to develop Rule 62-673, F.A.C., relating to management and closure of gypsum stack systems.

Solid Waste Management Map
Ardaman has worked on over 75 phosphogypsum disposal areas worldwide
Ardaman and Associates, Inc. has been involved with over 50 disposal facilities since 1959

Coal Combustion Residuals 

The Coal Combustion Residual (CCR) rule promulgated by the EPA in the Federal Register on April 17, 2015 contains specific requirements for CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments. These requirements include location restrictions, design criteria, operating criteria, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, closure design, post-closure care, recordkeeping, and public notification. Ardaman has been engaged with the power generating industry for over 30 years evaluating, designing and managing CCR waste facilities. Many of the advancements developed through our experience with gypsum stacks have translated to our services provided at generating stations in Florida and elsewhere throughout the United States.

Ardaman and Associates, Inc. Coal Combustion Residuals Landfill Facility OUC
Our solid waste services include every stage of phosphogypsum disposal facility development, including siting, design, construction monitoring and management.

Ardaman’s services for CCR facilities include the following:

  • Geotechnical engineering evaluation of subsurface foundation conditions and stability of landfill slopes
  • Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of various residual waste materials including fly ash, bottom ash and FGD sludge
  • Design of synthetic and natural liner systems along with internal and external drainage
  • Design of dams and impoundments associated with CCR landfills
  • QA/QC testing and inspection of construction of CCR landfills and liners
  • Closure of existing facilities, including construction QA/QC testing and inspection
  • Annual inspection of landfills including training of owner’s staff members in rules for stack operations
  • Contamination assessments and plume containment
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